Truchas Mexicanas


Image of large male Mexican golden trout

Abarca-Gonzalez, F.J., Young, K.L., Jensen, B.L., Parra, R.H., Bettaso, R.H., and Cobble, K. (1995) Yaqui River fishes relevant to the Madrean Province: U.S.-Mexico collaborations. In DeBano, L.F., Gottfried, G.J., Hamre, R.H., and Edminster, C.B. (eds.) Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-264. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO.

Aguilar R, M.A. (2000) En Chihuahua, pasos cortos pero firmes hacia otra experiencia exitosa: Ejido El Largo Maderal. Desarrollo Sustentable 2:3-5.

Aguirre-Bravo, C. and Reich, R.M. (1998) Integrated Inventory and Monitoring for Forest Ecosystem Resources: Northern Mexico Pilot Study (Report for The Ecological Monitoring and Assessment Network's Fourth National Science Meeting, Pointe-au-Pic/LaMalbaie, Québec, Canada). Available from the Internet URL

Anonymous (1879) Personal. Nashville Daily American, 8 June l879.

Anonymous (1-1-1880) How Trout Hear in the Water: Forest and Stream. Nashville Weekly American, 1 January l880.

Anonymous (1883) Polk's Mines. Nashville Daily American, 5 June 1883.

Anonymous (2002) No existe en la lengua Tarahumara la partícula "chic". El Heraldo de Chihuahua, 29 de Abril, 2002.

Arredondo-Figueroa, J.L. (1983) Aquatic animal species of nutritional importance introduced in Mexico (Especies de animales acuáticas de importancia nutricional introducidas en México). Biotica 8:175-199.

Arriaga Cabrera, L., Aguilar Sierra, V., and Alcocer Durand, J. (2000) Aguas Continentales y Diversidad Biológica de México. Comision Nacional para el Conocimiento y Uso de la Biodiversidad (CONABIO), México, D.F. 327 pp.

Association of Mexican Professional Foresters. (1996) Personal communication to W. Forbes. 

Audubon, J.W. (1906) Audubon's Western Journal: 1849 - 1850. Arthur H. Clark Co., Cleveland, Ohio. 249 pp.

Barry, T. (1994) The Challenge of Cross-Border Environmentalism. Interhemispheric Resource Center, Silver City, New Mexico

Behnke, R.J. (1979) Monograph of the Native Trouts of the genus Salmo of Western North America. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Regional Forester, Lakewood, Colorado. 163 pp.

Behnke, R.J. (1992) Native Trout of Western North America. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland. 275 pp.

Behnke, R.J. (1995) Evolution, Systematics, and Structure of Oncorhynchus clarki clarki. AMERICAN FISHERIES SOCIETY, OREGON CHAPTER, CORVALLIS, OREGON (USA)

Behnke, R.J. and Tomelleri, J. R. (2002) Trout and Salmon of North America. The Free Press, New York, New York. 384 pp.

Beltrán Alvarez, R., Sánchez Palacios, J., Arroyo Bustos, G., and Ramirez Lozano, J.P. (1994) Descripción general de la fauna ictiológica del Río Baluarte, Sinaloa, México. Ciencias del Mar (Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa) 1:27-33.

Berg, W.J. (1987) Evolutionary genetics of rainbow trout, Parasalmo gairdnerii (Richardson). Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis, 184 pp.

Berg, W.J. and Gall, G.A.E. (1988) Gene flow and genetic differentiation among California populations of coastal rainbow trout. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:122-131.

Bergtold, W.H. (1991) An Indian of the Sierra Madre. In Carmony, N.B. and Brown, D.E. (eds.) Mexican Game Trails: Americans Afield in Old Mexico, 1866-1940. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, Oklahoma, pp. 1-288.

Bosque Modelo Chihuahua A.C. (2001) Hacia el Desarrollo Forestal Sustentable de la Región San Juanito-Creel, Sierra Tarahumara, Chihuahua, México: 2001-2006. Bosque Modelo Chihuahua, A.C., Francisco I. Madero No. 604, C.P. 33210, San Juanito, Chihuahua, México. 11 pp.

Bowden, C. (1993) The Secret Forest. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. 141 pp.

Bowman, K. (1999) Personal Communication to W. Forbes. 

Brand, D.D. (1933) Historical Geography of Northwestern Chihuahua. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Berkeley, pp.

Brand, D.D. (1937) The natural landscape of northwestern Chihuahua. University of New Mexico Bulletin Geological Series 5:1-74.

Brooks, R.H., Kaplan, L., Cutler, H.C., and Whitaker, T.W. (1962) Plant material from a cave on the Río Zape, Durango, México. Amer. Antiq. 27:356-369.

Brown, D.E. (1982) Biotic Communities of the American Southwest - United States and Mexico. Desert Plants, University of Arizona, Boyce Thompson Southwestern Arboretum, Superior, Arizona. 342 pp.

Brown, D.E. (1994) Biotic Communities: Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City

Campoy-Favela, J., Varela-Romero, A., and Juárez-Romero, L. (1989) Observaciones sobre la ictiofauna nativa de la cuenca del Río Yaqui, Sonora, México. Ecológica (Hermosillo, Sonora, México) 1:1-14.

Carmichael, G.J., Hanson, J.N., Schmidt, M.E., and Morizot, D.C. (1993) Introgression among Apache, cutthroat, and rainbow trout in Arizona. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 122:121-130.

Carmichael, G.J., Hanson, J.N., Novy, J.R., Meyer, K.J., and Morizot, D.C. (1996) Apache trout management: Cultured fish, genetics, habitat improvements, and regulations. In Schramm, H.J. and Piper, R.G. (eds.) Uses and Effects of Cultured Fishes in Aquatic Ecosystems. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland, pp. 112-121.

Cavender, T.M. and Miller, R.R. (1982) Salmo australis, a new species of fossil salmonid from southwestern Mexico. Contrib. Mus. Paleont. , Univ. Mich. , Ann Arbor 26(1):1-17.

Cavender, T.M. (1986) Review of the fossil history of North American freshwater fishes. In Hocutt, C.H. and Wiley, E.O. (eds.) The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 699-724.

Cházari, E. (1884) Piscicultura en Agua Dulce. Secretaría de Fomento, México, D.F., México. 828 pp.

Cochran, P.A., Lyons, J., and Merino-Nambo, E. (1996) Notes on the biology of the Mexican lampreys Lampetra spadicea and L. geminis (Agnatha: Petromyzontidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat. 7:173-180.

Contreras-Balderas, S., Landa, V., Villegas, T., and Rodriguez, G. (1976) Fish, fish-farming, dams, pollution, fish planning and monitoring in Mexico. In MEM Symposium on Fishing and Continental Water., pp. 315-346.

Contreras-Balderas, S., Lozano-Vilano, M.D.L., and Garcia-Ramirez, M.E. (1995) Third Annotated and Revised Checklist of the Fishes from Nuevo León, México. Subcomission de Fauna, CCFFNL .

Cope, E.D. (1872) Report on the recent reptiles and fishes of the survey, collected by Campbell Carrington and C. M. Dawes. U. S. Geol. Surv. Territ. Ann. Rept. 5:467-476.

Cope, E.D. (1886) The most southern salmon. Am. Nat. 20:735.

Cota-Serrano, P. and Ruiz-Campos, G. (1991) Trophic ecology of Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Everman, from the Sierra San Pedro Martir, B.C., Mexico (Pices, Salmonidae). Proc. Desert Fish. Counc. 21:223-224.

De Buen, F. (1940) Lista de los Peces de Agua Dulce de México. En Preparación de su Catálogo. Depto. de la Marina Nacional. Depto. de Pesca e Industrias Marítimas. Estación Limnológica de Pátzcuaro, Pátzcuaro, Michoacán, México. 66 pp.

De Buen, F. (1947) Investigaciones sobre Ictiología Mexicana: I. Catálogo de los peces de la región neártica en suelo mexicano. Anales. Inst. Biol. Univ. Nac. Autón. Méx. ,Ser. Zool. 18: 257-348.

de Villagran, M.Á.A. (9-3-1777) Manuscrito 2449, ff. 384-387. Navogame, 1777/09/03 (from the Biblioteca Nacional, Madrid). 

Dedina, S., Gavney, S., Kleiberg, M., Moore, D., Ohlenberger, E., Paulson, L., and Schlesselman, G. (1998) Pre-Investment Analysis of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. The Nature Conservancy, Tucson, Arizona

Doolittle, W. (1985) The use of check dams for protecting downstream agricultural lands in the prehistoric Southwest: A contextual analysis. J. Anthrop. Res. 41:279-305.

Doolittle, W. (1988) Pre-Hispanic occupance in the Valley of Sonora, Mexico: Archaeological confirmation of early Spanish reports. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona, Tucson 48.

Doolittle, W. (2000) Cultivated Landscapes of Native North America. Oxford University Press, Oxford. 600 pp.

Dowling, T.E. and Childs, M.R. (1992) Impact of hybridization on a threatened trout of the southwestern United States. Conserv. Biol. 6:355-364.

Echelle, A.A. and Echelle, A.F. (1998) Evolutionary relationships of pupfishes in the Cyprinodon eximius complex (Atherinomorpha: Cyprinodontiformes). Copeia 1998:852-865.

Edwards, R.J., Garrett, G.P., and Marsh-Matthews, E. (2002) An ecological analysis of fish communities inhabiting the Rio Conchos basin. In Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, pp. 43-62.

Esquivel E., E. (2002) Análisis de la precipitación histórica de la zona norte de México. Gaceta Ecológica 65:24-42.

Evermann, B.W. (1908) Descriptions of a new species of trout (Salmo nelsoni) and a new cyprinodont (Fundulus meeki) with notes on other fishes from Lower California. Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 21:19-30.

Felger, R.S., Wilson, M.V.H., Burns, B.T., Dahl, K., Nelson, S., Fishbein, M., Petryszyn, Y., Hendrickson, D.A., Nabhan, G.P., Schwalbe, C.R., Suzan, H., and Warshall, P. (1995) Northern Sierra Madre Occidental and its Apachian outliers: A neglected center of Biodiversity. In DeBano, L.F., Gottfried, G.J., Hamre, R.H., and Edminster, C.B. (eds.) Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-264. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, CO, pp. 36-59.

Ferrari-Pérez, F. (1886) Catalogue of animals collected by the Geographical and Exploring Commission of the Republic of Mexico. III. Reptiles with descriptions of new species by E. D. Cope. Proc. U. S. Nat. Mus. , Smithson. Inst. 9:182-199.

Flippin, J.R. (1889) Letters from Guadalupe y Calvo. Standard Publishing Co., Cincinnati, Ohio. 433 pp.

Follett, W.I. (1960) The freshwater fishes--their origin and affinities. Syst. Zool. 9(3-4):212-232.

Fontana, B.L. (1979) The Material World of the Tarahumara. Arizona State Museum, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona. 84 pp.

Forbes, W. and Haas, T.S. (2000) Leopold's legacy in the Río Gavilán: revisiting an altered Mexican wilderness. Wild Earth Spring 2000:61-67.

Fule, P.Z. and Covington, W.W. (1994) Fire-regime disruption and pine-oak forest structure in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico. Restor. Ecol. 2:261-271.

Fule, P.Z. and Covington, W.W. (1996) Changing fire regimes in Mexican pine forests: ecological and management implications. J. Forestry 94:33-38.

Fule, P.Z. and Covington, W.W. (1997) Fire regimes and forest structure in the Sierra Madre Occidental, Durango, Mexico. Acta Bot. Mex.  41:43-79.

Garcia, M.E. (1979) [Physical and economical description of the trout farm in Malinalco, Mexico]. 1. International Symposium. Fishery Education and Organization. Fisheries Technology Effort; (Mexico); Dec 1979
Descripción física y economica de la granja de trucha de Malinalco, Mexico
. Departmento de Pesca, Mexico D.F. (Mexico).

Garcia, M.T., Maldonado-Vega, R., Betters, D.R., Aguirre-Bravo, C., Iglesias-Gutierrez, L., and Dominguez-Pereda, L.A. (1994) Ecosystem management for northern Mexico: Landowner perspectives at El Largo-Madera. In Ecosystem Management for Lands in Northern Mexico - A Management-Research Partnership. USDA Forest Service Rocky Mountain Research Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp. 1-10.

Girard, C. (1856) Researches upon the Cyprinid fishes inhabiting the fresh waters of the United States of America, west of the Mississippi valley, from specimens in the Museum of the Smithsonian Instutite. No Journal Found 165-213.

Gold, J.R. (1977) Systematics of western North American trout (Salmo), with notes on the redband trout of Sheepheaven Creek, California. Can. J. Zool. 55:1858-1873.

Goldman, E.A. (1898) Private Journal of Goldman. In: Archive of E.A. Goldman. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Graybrook, M. (3-23-2002) Personal communication about fishing for Mexican golden trout to D.A. Hendrickson. 

Griggs, J. (1907) Mines of Chihuahua. George Griggs, Chihuahua, Mexico (?). 349 pp.

Gudger, E.W. (1949) In the two Americas, 1699-1942. Amer. Naturalist 82:281-288.

Gudger, E.W. (1950) Tickling trout and other fishes in Great Britain, 1602-1943. Australian Mus. Mag. 16:61-64.

Gudger, E.W. (1951) Fishing with the hand in Europe, c. 195 A.D.-1913. La Nature .

Gudger, E.W. (1952) Fishing with the hand in certain asiatic countries. Journal of the Zoological Society of India 3:357-363.

Guerrero, M.T., Reed, C., and Vegter, B. (2000) The Forest Industry in the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua: Social, Economic, and Ecological Impacts. Comisión de Solidaridad y Defensa de los Derechos Humanos, A.C. and Texas Center for Policy Studies, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, Mexico and Austin, Texas, U.S.A. 77 pp.

Guerrero, M.T., De Villa, F., Kelly, M., Reed, C., and Vegter, B. (2001) The Forest Industry in the Sierra Madre of Chihuahua: Economic, Ecological and Social Impacts post NAFTA. Texas Center for Policy Studies, Austin, Texas, U.S.A. 54 pp.

Hamilton, L. (1883) Hamilton's Mexican Handbook; a Complete Description of the Republic of Mexico. D. Lothrop & Co., Boston, Massachusetts. 281 pp.

Hatch, M.D. (1985) The native fish fauna of major drainages east of the continental divide in New Mexico. Masters of Science thesis, Eastern New Mexico State University, Portales, 31 pp.

Hendrickson, D.A., Minckley, W.L., Miller, R.R., Siebert, D.J., and Haddock, P.L. (1981) Fishes of the Río Yaqui, México and the United States. J. Ariz. Nev. Acad. Sci. 15:65-106.

Hendrickson, D.A.and Varela-Romero, A. (2002) Fishes of the Río Fuerte, Sonora, Sinaloa and Chihuahua, México. In Lozano-Vilano, Ma.d.L. (ed.) Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, pp. 171-195.

Hendrickson, D.A., Espinosa-Pérez, H., Findley, L.T., Forbes, W., Tomelleri, J.R., Mayden, R.L., Nielsen, J.L., Jensen, B., Ruiz-Campos, G., Varela-Romero, A., Van Der Heiden, A.M., Camarena, F., and García de León, F.J. (in press) Mexican native trouts: a review of their history and current systematic and conservation status. Rev. Fish Biol. Fish.

Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía e Informática (INEGI) (1979) Carta Topográfica 1:50,000, Rio Grande G13A24, Chihuahua.

Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía e Informática (INEGI) (1979) Carta Topográfica 1:50,000, Nonoava G13A34, Chihuahua.

Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía e Informática (INEGI) (1995) Estudio Hidrológico del Estado de Sinaloa. Instituto Nacional de Estadística, Geografía e Informática, México. 80 pp.

Instituto Nacional de Estadistica Geografía e Informática (INEGI) (1998) Carta Topográfica 1:250,000, San Juanito G13-1, Chihuahua.

International Union for Conservation of Nature - IUCN (2002) 2002 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Available from the Internet URL

Johnson, R., Jr. (1997) Trout of the Sierra Madre: Adventurous anglers explore Mexico's rugged mountains to find a rare and beautiful treasure called the Yaqui trout. Western Outdoors March:78-86.

Johnson, R., Jr. (2000) More Mexican gold. Fly Rod and Reel Jan/Feb.

Jordan, D.S. and Evermann, B. W. (1902) American Food and Game Fishes. A popular Account of all the Species Found in America North of the Equator, with Keys for Ready Identification, Life Histories and Methods of Capture. Doubleday, Page and Co., New York. 573 pp.

Kelly, M.E. (2001) The Río Conchos: A Preliminary Overview. Texas Center for Policy Studies, 44 East Ave, Suite 306, Austin, Texas

Killebrew, J.B. (1883) Refugio, or Copalquin, Gold and Silver Mines.   Tennessee State Library and Archives, Microfilm #1194, Reel 3.

Killebrew, J.B. (1898) Recollections of my life, vol.II.   Tennessee State Library and Archives, Microfilm #1194, Reel 2.

King, D.A.and Czech, B. (1995) Ecotourism and the Madrean Archipelago. In DeBano, L.F., Gottfried, G.J., Hamre, R.H., and Edminster, C.B. (eds.) Biodiversity and Management of the Madrean Archipelago: The Sky Islands of Southwestern United States and Northwestern Mexico. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report RM-GTR-264. USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station, Fort Collins, Colorado, pp. 511-518.

Klooster, D. (1999) Community-based forestry in Mexico Can it reverse processes of degradation? Land Degrad. Dev. 10:363-379.

Lammertink, J.M., Rojas-Torre, J.A., Casillas-Orona, F.M., and Otto, R.L. (1996) Status and conservation of old-growth forests and endemic birds in the pine-oak zone of the Sierra Madre Occidental, Mexico. Verslagen en Technische Gegevens 69:1-89.

Lammertink, J.M. and Otto, R. L. (1997) Report on Fieldwork in the Rio Bavispe/Sierra Tabaco Area of Northern Sonora in November-December 1996, With a Proposal for a Larger Conservation Zone in the Northern Sonora/Chihuahua Border Area. Instituto Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Monterrey, Durango, México. 11 pp.

Lance, J.F. (1950) Paleontologia y estratigrafia del Pliocene de Yepomera, Estado de Chihuahua. 1st Parte: Equidos, excepto Neohipparion. Boletín del Instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México 54:1-81.

Legrendre, P.C., Schreck, C.B., and Behnke, R.J. (1972) Taximetric analysis of selected groups of western North American Salmo with respect to phylogenetic divergences. Syst. Zool. 21:292-307.

Leopold, A. (1918) Mixing trout in western waters. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 47:101-102.

Leopold, A. (1924) Grass, brush, timber, and fire in southern Arizona. J. Forestry 22:1-10.

Leopold, A. (1936) Leopold Papers, University of Wisconsin at Madison Archives, 9/25/10-7, Box 2. 

Leopold, A. (1937) Conservationist in Mexico. American Forests 43:118-121.

Leopold, A. (1940) Correspondence: Song of the Gavilan. J. Wildl. Manage. 4:329-332.

Leopold, A. (1949) A Sand County Almanac and Sketches Here and There. Oxford University Press, New York

Leopold, A.S. (1949) Adios Gavilan. Pac. Discov. 2:4-13.

Leopold, A.S. (1959) Wildlife of Mexico: the Game Birds and Mammals. University of California Press, Berkeley. 568 pp.

Lindsay, E.H. and Jacobs, L.L. (1985) Pliocene small mammal fossils from Chihuahua, Mexico. Paleontologia Mexicana 51:1-53.

Lindsey, C.C. (1960) [Review of] Rainbow trout in Mexico and California with notes on the cutthroat series, by P.R. Needham and R. Gard. Copeia 1960:160-162.

List, R.T., Moctezuma, O., and del Rio, C.M. (2000) Cooperative conservation: Wildlands Project efforts in the Sierra Madre Occidental. Wild Earth 10:51-54.

Loudenslager, E.J., Rinne, J.N., Gall, G.A.E., and David, R.E. (1986) Biochemical genetic studies of native Arizona and New Mexico trout. Southwest. Nat. 31(2):221-234.

Lowerre, R. and English, P. (1994) Evaluation of the Forestry Development Project of the World Bank in the Sierra Madre Occidental in Chihuahua and Durango, Mexico. Texas Center for Policy Studies, P.O. Box 2618, Austin, TX 78768

Lumholtz, C. (1902) Unknown Mexico; a Record of Five Years' Exploration Among the Tribes of the Western Sierra Madre; in the Tierra Caliente of Tepic and Jalisco; and Among the Tarascos of Michoacán. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. 530 pp.

Lunn, M. (5-12-1999) Letter to University of North Texas regarding National Riparian Service Team, Prineville, Oregon to University of North Texas. 

Lyons, J., Cochran, P.A., Polaco, O.J., and Merino-Nambo, E. (1994) Distribution and abundance of the Mexican lampreys (Petromyzontidae: Lampetra: Subgenus Tetrapleurodon). Southwest. Nat. 39:105-113.

Lyons, J., Polaco, O.J., and Cochran, P.A. (1996) Morphological variation among the Mexican lampreys (Petromyzontidae: Lampetra: Subgenus Tetrapleurodon). Southwest. Nat. 41:365-374.

Maldonado-Koerdell, M. (1949) Peces fosiles de México. Revista de la Sociedad Mexicana de Historia Natural 10(1-4):241-246.

Marshall, J.T. (1957) Birds of the pine-oak forest in southern Arizona and adjacent Mexico. Pacific Coast Avifauna 32:1-125.

Martin, P.S. (1993) Treasures of the Sierra Madre. In Bowden, C. (ed.) The Secret Forest. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, pp. 3-14 and-23-38.

Martin, P.S., Yetman, D., Fishbein, M., Jenkins, P., Van Devender, T. R., and Wilson, R. K. (1998) Gentry's Río Mayo plants:  The Tropical Deciduous Forest and Environs of Northwest Mexico. University of Arizona Press, Tucson. 558 pp.

Mayden, R.L. (in press) Phylogenetic relationships of the enigmatic ornate shiner, Cyprinella ornata, a species endemic to Mexico (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Rev. Fish Biol. Fish.

McCrimmon, R.H. (1971) World distribution of rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri). J. Fish. Res. Bd. Can. 28:663-704.

McDonald, M. (1891) Report of the Commission for 1887. U.S. Commission for Fish and Fisheries, Washington, D.C. 63 pp.

McDonnell, A. and Vacariu, K. (2000) Ejido Cebadillas, imperiled parrots, and an historic conservation partnership. Wild Earth 10:55-56.

Meek, S.E. (1904) The freshwater fishes of Mexico, north of the Isthmus of Tehuantepec. Field Columbian Museum Publication, Zoological Series 93, 1-254.

Mexican Central Railway Co. (1898) Facts and Figures about Mexico and Her Great Railroad: The Mexican Central. The Mexican Central Railway Co. Ltd., Mexico City. 61 pp.

Miller, R.R. (1950) Notes on the cutthroat and rainbow trouts with the description of a new species from the Gila River, New Mexico. Occas. Pap. Mus. Zool. Univ. Mich. 529:1-43.

Miller, R.R. (1959) Origin and affinities of the freshwater fish fauna of the American southwest. In Hubbs, C.L. (ed.) Zoogeography. American Association for the Advancement of Science Publication 51, Washington, D.C., pp. 187-222.

Miller, R.R. (1960) [Review of] Rainbow trout in Mexico and California with notes on the cutthroat series, by P.R. Needham and R. Gard. Prog. Fish-Cult. 22:94.

Miller, R.R. (1972) Classification of the native trouts of Arizona with the description of a new species, Salmo apache. Copeia 3:401-422.

Miller, R.R. (1976) An evaluation of Seth E. Meeks's contributions to Mexican ichthyology. Fieldiana (Zool). 69:1-31.

Miller, R.R.and Smith, M.L. (1986) Origin and geography of the fishes of central Mexico. In Hocutt, C.H. and Wiley, E.O. (eds.) The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, pp. 487-517.

Minckley, W.L., Hendrickson, D.A., and Bond, C.E. (1986) Geography of western North American freshwater fishes: description and relations to intracontinental tectonism. In Hocutt, C.H. and Wiley, E.O. (eds.) Zoogeography of Western North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, pp. 519-613.

Molinari, C. and Nolasco, E. (1992) Monografía de los Tepehuanos del Norte, México. Instituto Nacional Indigenista, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. 52 pp.

Montes-Pérez, M.I., León-García, D.L., Ruiz-Campos, G., and Tapia-Vázquez, O.M. (1990) Determinación de la talla-edad de primera madurez sexual y fecundidad de la trucha arcoiris (Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni), de la Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, México. Proc. Desert Fish. Counc. 22:39.

Moore, H. (1894) Railway Guide to the Republic of Mexico. Huben & Moore, Springfield, Ohio. 318 pp.

National Riparian Service Team. (1997) Accelerating Cooperative Riparian Restoration and Management.  1-18. Washington, D.C., U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management & U.S.D.A. Forest Service.

National Riparian Service Team. (5-12-1999) report on visit of National Riparian Service Team to Río Gavilán area to Ken Dickson at University of North Texas. 

Needham, P.R. (1938) Notes on the introduction of Salmo nelsoni Evermann into California from Mexico. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 67:139-146.

Needham, P.R. (1955) Trail of the Mexican trout (Roads to Discovery). Pac. Discov. 8(4):18-24.

Needham, P.R. (1959) New horizons in stocking hatchery trout. Transactions of the North American Wildlife Conference 24:395-407.

Needham, P.R. and Gard, R. (1959) Rainbow trout in Mexico and California with notes on the cutthroat series. Univ. Calif. Publ. Zool. 67(1):1-124.

Needham, P.R. and Gard, R. (1964) A new trout from central Mexico: Salmo chrysogaster, the Mexican golden trout. Copeia 1964(1):169-173.

Nelson, E.W. (1921) Lower California and its natural resources. Memoirs of the National Academy of Sciences 16:1-194.

Nielsen, J.L. (1996) Using mitochondrial and nuclear DNA to separate hatchery and wild stocks of rainbow trout in California and Mexico. In Donaldson, E.M. and MacKinlay, D.D. (eds.) Aquaculture Biodiversity Symposium Proceedings, International Congress on the Biology of Fishes, July 14-18, 1996.San Francisco, California, pp. 139-147.

Nielsen, J.L. (1997) Molecular genetics and evolutionary status of the trout of the Sierra Madre. In Gresswell, R.E., Dwyer, P., and Hamre, R.H. (eds.) Wild Trout VI: Putting the Native Back in Wild Trout. Montana State University, Bozeman, Montana, pp. 103-109.

Nielsen, J.L., Fountain, M.C., and Wright, J.M. (1997) Biogeographic analysis of Pacific trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in California and Mexico based on mitochondrial DNA and nuclear microsatellites. In Kocher, T.D. and Stepien, C.A. (eds.) Molecular Systematics of Fishes. Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 53-73.

Nielsen, J.L., Fountain, M.C., Campoy-Favela, J., Cobble, K., and Jensen, B.L. (1998) Oncorhynchus at the southern extent of their range: a study of mtDNA control-region sequence with special reference to an undescribed subspecies of O. mykiss from Mexico. Environ. Biol. Fishes 51:7-23.

Nielsen, J.L. (1998) Threatened fishes of the world: Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Evermann 1908 (Salmonidae). Environ. Biol. Fishes 51:376.

Nielsen, J.L. and Sage, G.K. (2001) Microsatellite analyses of the trout of Northwest Mexico. Genetica 111:269-278.

Norris, S.M., Fisher, J.M., and Minckley, W.L. (in press) Gila brevicauda (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), a new species of fish from the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico. Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwat.

O'Neal, K. (2002) Effects of Global Warming on Trout and Salmon in U.S. Streams. Defenders of Wildlife and National Resources Defense Council, Washington, D.C. 46 pp.

Oakley, T.H. and Phillips, R.B. (1999) Phylogeny of salmonine fishes based on growth hormone introns: Atlantic (Salmo) and Pacific (Oncorhynchus) salmon are not sister taxa. Mol. Phylo. Evol. 11:381-393.

Ober, F.A. (1884) Mexican Resources: a Guide to and Through Mexico. Estes and Lauriat, Boston. 37 pp.

Pennington, C.H. (1963) The Tarahumar of Mexico: Their Environment and Material Culture. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, Utah. 267 pp.

Pritchard, D. (1998) A User Guide to Assessing Proper Functioning Condition and the Supporting Science for Lotic Areas. 1735-15 edition. USDI Bureau of Land Management, Denver

Propst, D.L., Stefferud, J.A., and Turner, P.R. (1992) Conservation and status of Gila trout, Oncorhynchus gilae. Southwest. Nat. 37(2):117-125.

Propst, D.L. and Stefferud, J.A. (1994) Distribution and status of the Chihuahua chub (Teleostei: Cyprinidae: Gila nigrescens), with notes on its ecology and associated species. Southwest. Nat. 39:224-234.

Prosek, J. (1997) Trout, an Illustrated History. Knopf (distributed by Random House), New York, New York. 158 pp.

Raat, W.D. and Janecek, G. (1996) Mexico's Sierra Tarahumara:  A Photohistory of the People of the Edge (e-book version). Available from the Internet URL http:/

Ramirez Granados, R. and Sevilla-Hernandez, M. L. (1962) Instructivo Para la Cria de Trucha. Secretaría de Industria y Comercio, Dirección General de Pesca e Industrias Conexas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Biológico Pesquera, México, D.F. 58 pp.

Rand McNally Co. (1880) Mexico. In Indexed Atlas of the World. Rand McNally Co., Chicago, Illinois, pp. 258-259.

Rosas, M.M. (1976) Peces Dulce-Acuícolas que se Explotan Comercialmente en México y Datos Sobre su Cultivo. Instituto Nacional de Pesca. S.I.C. Subsecretaría de Pesca, CEESTEM, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. 135 pp.

Ruiz-Campos, G. and Contreras-Balderas, S. (1985) Lista ecológica y zoogeográfica de los peces continental de la peninsula de Baja California, México: Revisión 1985. Privately Processed Paper 1.

Ruiz-Campos, G. (1989) Repoblación natural por trucha arcoiris Salmo gairdneri nelsoni en un transecto del Arroyo San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México. Southwest. Nat. 34(4):552-556.

Ruiz-Campos, G. and Gomez-Ramirez, J. (1991) Age and growth of San Pedro Martir rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni Evermann, from Arroyo San Rafael, Baja California, México. Proc. Desert Fish. Counc. 21:141-161.

Ruiz-Campos, G. and Cota-Serrano, P. (1992) Ecología alimentícia de la trucha arcoiris (Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni) del Arroyo San Rafael, Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México. Southwest. Nat. 37(2):166-177.

Ruiz-Campos, G. (1993) Bionomía y ecología poblacional de la trucha arcoiris, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Evermann), de la Sierra San Pedro Mártir, Baja California, México. Ph.D. dissertation, Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Monterrey, México, 223 pp.

Ruiz-Campos, G. and Pister, E.P. (1995) Distribution, habitat, and current status of the San Pedro Mártir rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Evermann). Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 94:131-148.

Ruiz-Campos, G. and Gonzalez-Guzman, S. (1996) First freshwater record of Pacific lamprey, Lampetra tridentata, from Baja California, Mexico. Calif. Fish Game 82:144-146.

Ruiz-Campos, G., Pister, E.P., and Compean-Jimenez, G.A. (1997) Age and growth of Nelson's trout, Onchorhynchus mykiss nelsoni, from Arroyo San Rafael, Sierra San Pedro Martir, Baja California, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 42:74-85.

Ruiz-Campos, G., Contreras-Balderas, S., Lozano-Vilano, M.L., González-Guzmán, S., and Alaníz-García, J. (2000) Ecological and distributional status of the continental fishes of northwestern Baja California, Mexico. Bull. South. Calif. Acad. Sci. 99:59-90.

Sauer, C.O. (1935) Aboriginal population of northwestern Mexico. University of California Press, Berkeley, California. 33 pp.

Schmidt, R.H.Jr. (1983) Chihuahuan climate. In Barlow, J.C., Powell, A.M., and Timmermann, B.N. (eds.) Second Symposium on Resources of the Chihuahuan Desert Region - U.S. and Mexico II. Chihuahuan Desert Research Institute, Alpine,Tx, pp. 40-63.

Secretaría de Desarrollo Social (1994) Norma Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-1994, que determina las especies y subespecies de flora y fauna silvestres y acuáticas en peligro de extinción, amenazadas, raras y sujetas a protección especial, y que establece especificaciones para su protección. Diario Oficial De La Federación,México CDLXXXVIII:2-60.

Secretaría de Fomento (1892) Breves Instrucciones para el Aprovechamiento de los Gérmenes de Trucha Arco-Iris que Distribuirá la Secretaría de Fomento a Fines del Presente Año y Principios del Entrante. Secretaría de Fomento, México, D.F. 11 pp.gemenes_de_trucha_arco_iris.pdf

Secretaría del Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales (2002) NORMA Oficial Mexicana NOM-059-ECOL-2001, Protección ambiental-Especies nativas de México de flora y fauna silvestres-Categorías de riesgo y especificaciones para su inclusión, exclusión o cambio-Lista de especies en riesgo. Gaceta Ecológica 62:68-240.

Sevilla, M.L. (1960) Estudio preliminar de las posibilidades piscícolas en la Tarahumara (II). SIC-DGPIC. Boletín Piscicultura Rural X:4-11.

Shaw, H. (2002) The Wolf in the Southwest: the Making of an Endangered Species. High Lonesome Books, Silver City, New Mexico. 208 pp.

Sheridan, T.E. and Nash, T. H. (1979) Raramuri, a Tarahumara Colonial Chronicle, 1607-1791. 1 edition. Northland Press, Flagstaff, Arizona. 144 pp.

Simonian, L. (1995) Defending the Land of the Jaguar: A History of Conservation in Mexico. University of Texas Press, Austin. 326 pp.

Smith, G.R. (1981) Late Cenozoic freshwater fishes of North America. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 12:163-193.

Smith, M.L., Cavender, T.M., and Miller, R.R. (1975) Climatic and biogeographic significance of a fish fauna from the Late Pliocene- Early Pleistocene of the Lake Chapala basin (Jalisco, Mexico). Univ. Mich. Pap. Paleont. 12:29-38.

Smith, M.L. (1981) Late Cenozoic fishes in the warm deserts of North America: a reinterpretation of desert adaptations. In Naiman, R.J. and Soltz, D.L. (eds.) Fishes in North American Deserts. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York, pp. 11-38.

Smith, M.L.and Miller, R.R. (1986) The evolution of the Rio Grande basin as inferred from its fish fauna. In Hocutt, C. and Wiley, E.O. (eds.) The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes.New York, NY, pp. 457-485.

Smith, R.H. (1983) Native Trout of North America. Frank Amato Publications, Portland, Oregon. 144 pp.

Sobolik, K.D. (1991) Prehistoric Diet and Subsistence in the Lower Pecos as Reflected in Coprolites from Baker Cave, Val Verde County, Texas. Texas Archeological Research Laboratory, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas. 141 pp.

Solorzano Preciado, A. (1981) Cultivo de la Trucha Arco Iris (Salmo gairdneri). Pesca. Dir. Gral de Publicaciones y Biblioteca, Dir. Gral de Acuacultura, Mexico City. 24 pp.

Stearley, R.F. (1992) Historical ecology of Salmoninae, with special reference to Oncorhynchus. In  Mayden, R.L. (ed.) Systematics, Historical Ecology, and North American Freshwater Fishes. Stanford University Press, Stanford, California, pp. 622-658.

Stearley, R.F. and Smith, G.R. (1993) Phylogeny of the Pacific trouts and salmons (Oncorhynchus) and genera of the family Salmonidae. Trans. Am. Fish. Soc. 122(1):1-33.

Stefferud, J.A. and Propst, D.L. (1996) Fish fauna of the Bavicora Basin, Chihuahua, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 41:446-450.

Stepien, C.A. (1995) Population genetic divergence and geographic patterns from DNA sequences: Examples from marine and freshwater fishes. In Nielsen, J.L. (ed.) Evolution and the Aquatic Ecosystem Defining Unique Units in Population Conservation. American Fisheries Society, Bethesda, Maryland.

Stilwell, H. (1948) Fishing in Mexico. 1st edition. A.A. Knopf, New York, N.Y. 296 pp.

Stonkus, A. (1998) Personal Communication regarding fishing in Mexico to W. Forbes. 

Stonkus, A. (2002) Personal communication regarding fly fishing for Mexican trout to Dean A.Hendrickson. 

Sublette, J.E., Hatch, M. D., and Sublette, M. (1990) The Fishes of New Mexico. Univ. of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, NM. 393 pp.

Suttkus, R.D.and Bart, H.L.Jr. (2002) Preliminary analysis of the river carpsucker, Carpiodes carpio (Rafinesque), in the southern portion of its range. In Libro Jubilar en Honor al Dr. Salvador Contreras Balderas. Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Facultad de Ciencias Biológicas, Monterrey, Nuevo León, México, pp. 209-222.

Tarango, L.A., Váldez, R., Zwank, P.J., and Cárdenas, M. (1997) Mexican spotted owl habitat characteristics in southwestern Chihuahua, Mexico. Southwest. Nat. 42:132-136.

Thoms, C.A. and Betters, D.R. (1998) The potential for ecosystem management in Mexico's forest ejidos. For. Ecol. Manage. 103:149-157.

Tomelleri, J.R. (1999) Trout in the southern Rockies: Colorado, Utah, Arizona, New Mexico, Chihuahua Mex.  Leawood, Kansas, Cimarron Trading Co.

Torres G., E.A., Ritkey Bolaños G., H., Lafon, A., Cano de los Ríos, O., and Espinosa-Pérez, H. (1997) Caracterización de la Fauna Acuática del Área de Bosque Modelo Chihuhaua. Bosque Modelo Chihuahua, A.C., Av. Ocampo 409, Col. Centro, C.P. 03100, Chihuahua, Chihuahua, México. 79 pp.

U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service (1979) Recovery Plan for Arizona trout, Salmo apache Miller 1972. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Office of Endangered Species, Albuquerque, New Mexico. 37 pp.

U.S.Fish and Wildlife Service (1987) Endangered and threatened wildlife; proposed reclassification of the Gila trout (Salmo gilae) from endangered to threatened. Federal Register 52:37424-37427.

Utter, F.M. and Allendorf, F.W. (1994) Phylogenetic relationships among species of Oncorhynchus: a consensus view. Conserv. Biol. 8:864-867.

Valles-Ríos, M.E. and Ruiz-Campos, G. (1997) Prevalencia e intensidad de helmintos parásitos del tracto digestivo de la trucha arcoiris Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni (Pisces: Salmonidae), de Baja California, México. Revista de Biología Tropical 44/45:579-584.

Van Devender, T.R. (1977) Holocene woodlands in the southwestern deserts. Science 198:189-192.

Van Devender, T.R. and Spaulding, W.G. (1979) Development of vegetation and climate in the southwestern United States. Science 204:701-710.

Van Devender, T.R., Rea, A.M., and Smith, M.L. (1985) An interglacial vertebrate fauna from Rancho la Brisca, Sonora, Mexico. Trans. San Diego Soc. Nat. Hist. 21:23-55.

Van Devender, T.R. (1990) Late Quaternary vegetation and climate of the Chihuahuan Desert, United States and Mexico. In Betancourt, J.L., Van Devender, T.R., and Martin, P.S. (eds.) Packrat Middens, The Last 40,000 Years of Biotic Change. The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, pp. 104-133.

Varela-Romero, A., Juárez-Romero, L., and Campoy-Favela, J. (2001) Los Peces Dulceacuícolas de Sonora. 

Varela-Romero, A., Juárez-Romero, L., and Campoy-Favela, J. (2002) Los Peces Dulceacuícolas de Sonora. Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo

Villalobos-Ramirez, M.M. and Ruiz-Campos, G. (1990) Relación de factores bióticos y abióticos en la amplitud del rango casero de la trucha arcoiris Oncorhynchus mykiss nelsoni, del Arroyo San Rafael, Sierra San Pedro Mártir, B.C., México. Proc. Desert Fish. Counc. 22:37.

Western Native Trout Campaign. (2001) Imperiled Western Trout and the Importance of Roadless Areas.  1-27. Tucson Arizona, Center for Biological Diversity.

Whetten, E. (1997) Personal Communication regarding history of native trout and their habitats in Chihuahua and Sonora to W. Forbes. 

Williams, J.E., Johnson, J., Hendrickson, D.A., Contreras-Balderas, S., Williams, J.D., Navarro-Mendoza, M., McAllister, D.E., and Deacon, J.E. (1989) Fishes of North America endangered, threatened or of special concern: 1989. Fisheries 14:2-20.

Williams, J.E., Bowman, D.B., Brooks, J.E., Echelle, A.A., Edwards, R.J., Hendrickson, D.A., and Landye, J.J. (2000) Endangered aquatic ecosystems in North American desert regions, with a list of vanishing fishes. J. Ariz. Nev. Acad. Sci. 20:1-62.

comments and general inquiries to Dean Hendrickson (