Xylem Vessels & Rays
Cut section of V. virginica secondary xylem that had produced crystallofolia. Rays are clearly visible on the transverse plane; difficult to find on the tangential plane. But one tangential ray area seems to have been affected by frost (in the red frame). A highly simplified schematization of the transfer of xylem sap to one xylem ray is shown on the right (vessels and ray cells are stylized, and not to scale).