Most madrones in the wild got their start in the mulch and shade of an Ashe juniper. Although hundreds have volunteered under our junipers, none has volunteered in open grassland; and none have been found under larger madrones. Very few volunteers have been found under other trees, especially not under live oaks (unless leaf litter has been significantly reduced by mowing or exposure to wind).
3 ½ years growth of a young madrone on the dry E. side of a valley. (Would be visible with binoculars at the arrow tip.)
This entire hillside had no madrones prior to my establishing two fruiting trees on the west side.
Very small madrones in juniper thicket. Each red box indicates one or more seedlings marked by a small white plastic ring, detail shown in the picture below.